XMM-Newton observations of Local Group galaxies are well suited to study the
X-ray source population and diffuse emission in nearby spiral galaxies. The
results are important to interpret X-ray data from similar more distant
galaxies and allow us to study the differences between younger (e.g. high mass
XRBs) and older (low mass XRBs, globular cluster sources) populations.
We have homogeneously analyzed all archival XMM-Newton EPIC observations of the
Local Group galaxies M 31 and M 33 and detected 856 and 408 sources,
respectively. The sources are identified or classified using X-ray hardness ratio and
information from other wavelengths. Within the galaxies we find supersoft
sources (SSSs), supernova remnants (SNRs), and X-ray binaries (XRBs). In addition
there are foreground stars from the Milky Way and objects in the background
(galaxies, cluster of galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN)). In total we
more than doubled the number of sources in the fields and detected many new SSS,
XRBs and SNRs in the galaxies.
XMM-Newton EPIC low background three colour images combining PN and MOS cameras
for M 31. Red, green and blue show
respectively (0.2-1, 1-2, 2-12) keV bands. The optical extent of the galaxies is
indicated by D25 ellipses. The images are smoothed with a Gaussian of
20" FWHM. The insert in the M 31 image shows a factor 3 zoom-in on the centre area
(5" smoothing). SSS, thermal SNRs and foreground stars show up in red and
yellow, plerionic type SNRs, XRBs and AGN in green , white or blue.
Hardness ratio (HR) diagram of M 33 sources detected by XMM-Newton. Shown as dots are
only sources with HR errors smaller than 0.2. Fourground stars and candidates
are marked as big and small stars, AGN as crosses, SSSs as triangles, SNRs as
hexagons, X-ray binaries as squares. In addition HRs from measured objects in
the Galaxy or Magellanic Clouds or determined from model spectra for the source
classes are shown by filled symbols. SSSs clearly separate by their HR1. Thermal
SNRs and foreground stars cover the same area in the HR2-HR1 diagram and can be
separated using optical information. XRBs, plerionic type SNRs and AGN do not
separate in the HR diagrams and all show hard HRs.
Papers from this work:
An X-ray monitoring program of the central area of M 31 with Chandra and XMM-Newton
- The X-ray Supersoft Source State of Optical Novae in M 31
- Transient X-ray sources in the central area of M 31
The X-ray Source Population of the Andromeda Galaxy M 31
- An X-ray survey of M 31 using XMM-Newton
The Chandra ACIS Survey of M 33 (ChASeM33)
- A Deep Survey of the Nearest Face-on Spiral Galaxy
Deep XMM-Newton survey of M 33
Pietsch, W., Ehle, M., Haberl, F., Misanovic, Z., Trinchieri, G.
2003, AN, 324, 85
The eclipsing massive X-ray binary M 33 X-7: New X-ray observations and
Pietsch, W., Mochejska, B.J., Misanovic, Z., Haberl, F., Ehle, M., Trinchieri, G.
2004, A&A, 413, 879
XMM-Newton survey of the Local Group galaxy M 33
Pietsch, W., Misanovic, Z., Haberl, F., Hatzidimitriou, D., Ehle, M., Trinchieri, G.
2004, A&A, 426, 11
XMM-Newton detection of type I X-ray bursts in M 31
Pietsch, W., Haberl, F.
2005, A&A, 430, L45
XMM-Newton survey of M 31
Pietsch, W., Freyberg M., Haberl, F.
2005, A&A, 434, 483
Optical novae: the major class of supersoft X-ray sources in M 31
Pietsch, W., Fliri, J., Freyberg, M. J., Greiner, J., Haberl, F., Riffeser, A., Sala, G.
2005, A&A, 442, 879
An XMM-Newton survey of the Local Group galaxy M 33 - variability of the detected sources
Misanovic, Z., Pietsch, W., Haberl, F., Ehle, M., Hatzidimitriou, D., Trinchieri, G.
2006, A&A, 448, 1247
Spectroscopy of the brightest optical counterparts of X-ray sources in the direction of M 31 and M 33
Hatzidimitriou, D., Pietsch, W., Misanovic, Z., Reig, P., Haberl, F.
2006, A&A, 451, 835
M33 X-7: ChASeM33 Reveals the First Eclipsing Black Hole X-Ray Binary
Pietsch, W., Haberl, F., Sasaki, M., Gaetz, T. J., Plucinsky, P. P., Ghavamian, P., Long, K. S., Pannuti, T. G.
2006, ApJ, 646, 420